ANALYSIS OF BIOENERGY PRODUCTION AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF INTEGRATION IN ENERGY-DRIVEN BIOREFINERIES Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • In this paper, a techno-economic and environmental assessment is performed to compare the stand-alone process and biorefinery ways to produce biodiesel, ethanol and butanol as potential cases for bioenergy production using fresh fruit bunches as raw material. Different levels of integration are considered (e.g., mass and energy integration, non-conventional technologies) along with the analysis of the process scale to determine the economic profitability and environmental impacts of the proposed cases. The results demonstrated that the biodiesel production based on the biorefinery concept has a positive effect on the profitability of the stand-alone process at different scales. The economic results were compared with data reported in the literature. Furthermore, the life cycle analysis of the proposed cases suggested that the deployment of the biorefinery concept at different levels of integration in the oil palm supply chain reduced the environmental impact of the biodiesel production, which was selected as the hotspot of the evaluated cases.

publication date

  • 2018

start page

  • 1599

end page

  • 1633

volume

  • 22